Posts Tagged ‘Geology’

Before the scientific era, people often made up imaginative stories to explain what they saw in the world. The scientific method changed that by requiring rigorous experimentation to test hypotheses and determine what is real. With the Theory of Evolution, people are back to making up imaginative stories. The primary advantage of complete metamorphosis is eliminating competition between the young and old. Larval insects and adult insects occupy very different ecological niches. Whereas caterpillars are busy gorging themselves on leaves, completely disinterested in reproduction, butterflies are flitting from flower to flower in search of nectar and mates. Because larvas and adults do not compete with one another for space or resources, more of each can coexist relative to species in which the young and old live in the same places and eat the same things. Ultimately, the impetus for many of life’s astounding transformations also explains insect metamorphosis: Nevertheless, “biologists have established a plausible narrative about the origin of insect metamorphosis, which they continue to revise as new information surfaces.

Books & Resources

Understanding the energy conversion capability of photosynthesis and the artificial nanostructured photocatalysts contrast biotic and abiotic systems, while demonstrating the efficiency of photosynthesis compared to titanium dioxide nanoparticles in generating gas production volumetrically. The experiment results transition to a discussion of photosynthesis and the organelles within the cell where it takes place.

The lesson can lead to discussion of renewable energy conversion methods and nanotechnology, to help advance nanoscience research to solve the challenging energy issues in the future. In this lesson, students will read and critically examine a letter from an Alabama farm owner to a U. Senator from Alabama regarding exemption status for the Selective Service Act on behalf of one of her workers.

This primary source document will allow the students to practice evaluating a complex text.

Using isochron dating from a respected lab, the lower rocks were dated at billion years and the upper, and presumably younger rocks, were dated at billion years. There is an obvious discordance (disagreement) in the data.

Geologic Time Scale Deep Time Fossilization Petrification It is a great introduction to the concepts that will be taught in further classes. The girls and I focused on Dinosaurs and the Bible. The subscription for this class lasts six months, giving you plenty of time to watch and even rewatch lessons. Along with access to the online class you will find links to download worksheets, answer keys, and a final exam also with the answer key.

Each of the six lessons is approximately 20 minutes in length and features Mr. Patrick Nurre teaching the lesson off screen while sharing powerpoint type lessons full of drawings, photographs, and charts. Here is a list of the lessons included in this course along with the length of each lesson: The Classification of Dinosaurs The Great Dinosaur Rush The Extinction of the Dinosaurs

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The 6-foot-9, pound Johnson has no doubt it was Bigfoot, or Sasquatch, the at-least foot-tall, primate-like, hairy creature legendary in the Pacific Northwest and considered a myth by most. The Grants Pass psychologist told his tale on television and in the papers across the country, even internationally. He created the Southern Oregon Bigfoot Society so people could join together to chase the beast.

Johnson still gets emotional talking about his encounter.

The Challenge of the Fossil Record Anyone who has sat through a biology course in the last century has learned that the fossil record is the firm foundation upon which the edifice of Darwinism stands, an inexhaustible source of undeniable evidence for the truth of the theory.

Love-hungry teenagers and archaeologists agree: But while the difficulties of single life may be intractable, the challenge of determining the age of prehistoric artifacts and fossils is greatly aided by measuring certain radioactive isotopes. Until this century, relative dating was the only technique for identifying the age of a truly ancient object. By examining the object’s relation to layers of deposits in the area, and by comparing the object to others found at the site, archaeologists can estimate when the object arrived at the site.

Though still heavily used, relative dating is now augmented by several modern dating techniques. Radiocarbon dating involves determining the age of an ancient fossil or specimen by measuring its carbon content. Carbon , or radiocarbon, is a naturally occurring radioactive isotope that forms when cosmic rays in the upper atmosphere strike nitrogen molecules, which then oxidize to become carbon dioxide. Green plants absorb the carbon dioxide, so the population of carbon molecules is continually replenished until the plant dies.

Carbon is also passed onto the animals that eat those plants.

Age of the earth

Lucy is estimated to have lived 3. Cleveland Natural History Museum, photo by Andrew. Around 30, years ago humans were anatomically and behaviorally similar throughout the world. One of the most hotly debated issues in paleoanthropology the study of human origins focuses on the origins of modern humans, Homo sapiens. However, by 30, years ago this taxonomic diversity vanished and humans everywhere had evolved into the anatomically and behaviorally modern form.

The nature of this transformation is the focus of great deliberation between two schools of thought:

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During the majority of this time we have some sort of written records to analyze. When we talk about looking at the history of the Earth, and the evolution of organisms on it, we are looking at time periods spanning millions and billions of years. Understanding this portion of history requires detective work: People who study this kind of history have to use a greater time scale than that used for human history; this time scale is referred to as the geologic time scale.

Think of it like a book, with the rocks as its pages. Some of the pages are torn or missing, and the pages are not numbered, but geology gives us the tools to help us read this book. Long before geologists had the means to recognize and express time in numbers of years before the present, they developed the geologic time scale. This time scale was developed gradually, mostly in Europe, over the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.

Earth’s history is subdivided into eons, which are subdivided into eras, which are subdivided into periods, which are subdivided into epochs.

Descendants of Lord Rama in the War of Mahabharata

She also researches cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. Did you know it was once believed that non-living things, like grain, could produce living things like mice? This idea was widely held until the mid s! Louis Pasteur finally disproved this theory, and this lesson will tell you how. Before Louis Pasteur Before Louis Pasteur, it was widely believed that non-living things could produce living organisms. This is the idea of spontaneous generation, first proposed by Aristotle, who lived from to BCE.

Index fossils are the basis for defining boundaries in the geologic time scale and for the correlation of index fossil dating. In marine strata, index fossils that are commonly used include the single-celled Protista with hard body parts and larger forms such as ammonoids.

You can do it if you try. As I go into this lesson keep, these things in mind for they are important to help you understand what the wars recorded through the bible were all about! We find that God rested after he had created everything. Even the races of humankind and all the souls that would eventually be born through the womb or bag of waters as explained in St.

John chapter 3 for that is really what Jesus is explaining there. In the New Testament book of Matthew in chapter 19, the Pharisees are questioning Jesus about the divorce laws and in verse 4 reads this way: God is not still creating souls; he finished it all and saw that it was perfect. He liked what he did. At that time is when God created all the races of humankind both males and females.

And seed after seed and kind after kind. There is no room for evolution here in the word of God! This one is different in the way that he is to be the bloodline down through the years of Jesus Christ. He is formed and placed in a special garden called Eden,[ he was not created in Eden,] where there are specific domesticated animals, which is good to eat for food. But there was no suitable helpmate or partner for him.


Member beliefs What most LDS have been taught in church and believe as truth The leaders of the church, as well as gospel doctrine teachers the world over, have taught that many Biblical events and beliefs that people have had for centuries are indeed true, historical events. Joseph Smith and other prophets have made statements that indicated that certain Biblical events were indeed historical and not merely parables.

Many of these Biblical traditions were believed as literal events by most of the general population in the s as well. Global Flood of Noah.

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Scientific measurements such as radiometric dating use the natural radioactivity of certain elements found in rocks to help determine their age. Scientists also use direct evidence from observations of the rock layers themselves to find the relative age of rock layers. Specific rock formations are indicative of a particular type of environment existing when the rock was being formed. For example, most limestone represents marine environments, whereas, sandstones with ripple marks might indicate a shoreline habitat or riverbed.

The study and comparison of exposed rock layers or strata in different areas of Earth led scientists in the early 19th century to propose that the rock layers could be correlated from place to place. Locally, physical characteristics of rocks can be compared and correlated. On a larger scale, even between continents, fossil evidence can help in matching rock layers. The Law of Superposition, which states that in an undisturbed horizontal sequence of rocks the oldest rock layers will be on the bottom, with successively younger rocks on top of these, helps geologists correlate rock layers around the world.

This also means that fossils found in the lowest levels in a sequence of layered rocks represent the oldest record of life there. By matching partial sequences, the truly oldest layers with fossils can be worked out. By correlating fossils from various parts of the world, scientists are able to give relative ages to particular strata.

Earth’s History: Events, Places and Impacts

Benchmarks of Science Literacy 9. The youngest layers are not always found on top, because of folding, breaking, and uplift of layers. He supported his claim with a wealth of observations of the patterns of rock layers in mountains and the locations of various kinds of fossils. By the s, scientists were starting to realize that the earth was much older even though they could not determine its exact age. Early methods of determining geologic time, such as the use of index fossils and stratigraphic sequences, allowed for the relative dating of geological events.

Students explored the Life Has A History web site to explore the geologic time scale, fossils, and dinosaurs. The worksheet was designed for the Level 2 tour. The worksheet was designed for the Level 2 .

Changing Body Shapes and Sizes Short bodies, long guts By 6 million years ago Australopithecus afarensis, “Lucy”, reconstructed skeleton The earliest human species were small in size and usually had long arms and short legs. Their plant-based diet required a large digestive tract. A wide rib cage made room for the stomach, intestines, and other organs that break down food.

Tall bodies, short guts By 1. Long legs enabled them to travel longer distances. Eating meat and other foods that could be digested quickly led to a smaller digestive tract, making more energy available for tall bodies and large brains. Compact bodies, short guts By , years ago When early humans spread to colder climates, their body shapes evolved in ways that helped them stay warm. The pelvis shows he was male.

His teeth tell his age. The boy was 1. If he had reached adulthood, he might have grown to nearly 1. His tall, lean body was well adapted to hot, dry environments.

History Crash Course #1: Why Study History

Help students put one minute in perspective. Objectives put the length of time one minute in perspective. Keywords Time, measurement, telling time, clock, hours, minutes, seconds, watch Materials Needed clock with a second hand, watch with a second hand, or a stopwatch list of spelling words optional a math facts speed-test sheet with basic addition facts optional a Dr.

Seuss book such as The Cat in the Hat or Green Eggs and Ham optional a list of ten grade-appropriate words optional an index card with a letter of the alphabet written on it [common letters only], one card per student optional Internet access to the Industrious Clock optional Lesson Plan This lesson helps students put the minute in perspective.

Start the lesson by asking students to identify words that tell how we measure time. Write the words on the board or a chart.

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A demonstrate safe practices during laboratory and field investigations; 1. B demonstrate an understanding of the use and conservation of resources and the proper disposal or recycling of materials; and 1. C use the school’s technology and information systems in a wise and ethical manner. The student is expected to: E demonstrate the use of course equipment, techniques, and procedures, including computers and web-based computer applications; 2. F use a wide variety of additional course apparatuses, equipment, techniques, and procedures as appropriate such as satellite imagery and other remote sensing data, Geographic Information Systems GIS , Global Positioning System GPS , scientific probes, microscopes, telescopes, modern video and image libraries, weather stations, fossil and rock kits, bar magnets, coiled springs, wave simulators, tectonic plate models, and planetary globes; 2.

G organize, analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data; 2. H use mathematical procedures such as algebra, statistics, scientific notation, and significant figures to analyze data using the International System SI units 2. I communicate valid conclusions supported by data using several formats such as technical reports, lab reports, labeled drawings, graphic organizers, journals, presentations, and technical posters.

The student is expected to 3.

Louis Pasteur: Experiments, Contribution & Theory

History Crash Course 1: Why Study History Jewish history teaches not only to avoid past mistakes, but to understand where destiny is leading us. Usually when one mentions the word “history” most people break out in a cold sweat. They remember back to high school and they associate history with the memorization of names, dates, places and events necessary only for exams and then promptly forgotten afterwards.

This is probably why Mark Twain said, “I never let my schooling interfere with my education. What benefit does learning history serve?

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Ryan Dube They are accurate based on a large number of sources, many of which were not even cited for this article. The majority of the discomfort seems to come from the fact that many Mormons here feel the portrayal of those beliefs is inaccurate — which may be a valid argument. Discussing with our editor now. Thanks for the feedback. Ryan Dube Not really — if you took the time to look into my own past writing, you would see that I explore a long list of belief systems — people that belief in aliens, abductions, UFOs, reptiles, angels, ghosts, and in this case — the application of baptism-after-death, among other things.

As you can imagine, we tend to offend people that believe in aliens, UFOs, abductions, etc…. As bytebear accurately pointed out — there may have been some things that could have been learned from getting a quote or two from folks within the Mormon church. We can obtain more if necessary — an entire follow-up article with more evidence if required. They have distinctive little practices, such as the famous underwear, to mark them off from other mortals, and they are said to be highly disciplined and continent when it comes to sex, booze, nicotine, and coffee.

Word is that the church can be harder to leave than it was to join. Hefty donations and tithes are apparently appreciated from the membership. They have an employment office for Mormons in D.

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